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A urine pH level test is a test that analyzes the acidity or alkalinity of a urine sample. Many diseasesyour diet, and the medicines you take can affect how acidic or basic your urine is.

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Objective: To investigate the relationship between urine pH and metabolic syndrome MetS and its components, while controlling for covariates. Subjects and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 5, Japanese subjects 4, without MetS; with MetS undergoing health assessments. Partial correlation analysis and analysis of covariance were used for controlling confounding parameters age, gender, levels of serum uric acid and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, estimated glomerular filtration rate, and smoking and drinking status.

Path analysis was used to determine the relationship between MetS and urine pH. : Subjects with MetS had ificantly lower urine pH 5. Conclusion: The MetS and its components were independently associated with lower urine pH. The examination of urine pH could be a practical screening tool Urine ph 6.2 metabolic syndrome.

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Metabolic syndrome MetS is associated with a variety of physiological and metabolic alterations, and is clinically recognized by numerous constitutive traits, including abdominal obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and hyperglycemia [ 1 ].

This cluster of features is strongly associated with type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and increased cardiovascular and all-cause mortality [ 1 ]. Obesity, another feature of MetS, is Urine ph 6.2 associated with a low urine pH [ 4 ]. In addition, non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol HDL-C could have a ificant association with a lower urinary pH [ 3 ].

In a recent cohort study, it was proposed that low urine pH is a causative and predictive factor for the development of MetS [ 5 ].

However, the relationship between urine pH and blood pressure has been investigated in only Urine ph 6.2 few studies [ 56 ], and only a limited of studies has considered confounding variables such as smoking habits and alcohol intake [ 78 ]. Epidemiological studies have revealed a close relationship between serum uric acid UA levels and the presence of MetS [ 910 ]. Nevertheless, while patients with high serum UA levels were reported to have a low urine pH [ 5611 ], it is unclear whether or not low urine pH relates to MetS in Urine ph 6.2 manner independent of serum UA levels.

Therefore, to ascertain whether or not urine pH is related to MetS and its components, a cross-sectional study was conducted in a Japanese population. This study included 5, individuals who underwent routine health check-ups in Iida Municipal Hospital, Iida City, Japan, from January to December When data were available for individuals from multiple visits, only data acquired at the first visit were included.

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Consequently, of the 5, individuals, 5, subjects were included in the final analysis 4, patients without MetS and patients with MetS. This study was approved by the Institutional Ethics Review Board of Iida Municipal Hospital and performed in accordance with the principles of the Declaration of Helsinki. Written informed consent was obtained from all participants. WC was measured between the lower rib margin and iliac crest after a normal expiratory breath.

Two separate measurements were taken after 15 min of resting, with an interval of at least 30 s between the 2, and the mean of these was considered. Information regarding various comorbidities, including hypertension, dyslipidemia, and diabetes, were collected by in-person interviews. The smoking status and alcohol consumption of study participants were assessed using a standardized questionnaire. The smoking status Urine ph 6.2 considered as Urine ph 6.2 smoking daily and occasional smoking and nonsmoking never and former smoking.

Alcohol consumption was classified as current drinkers at least once per week and noncurrent drinkers.

Blood samples were obtained after an overnight fast. To obtain a serum sample, the blood sample was centrifuged in a plain vacutainer within min of blood clotting. An early morning midstream urine sample was collected for urine chemistry following an overnight fasting period, and was analyzed immediately using an automated urine dipstick analyzer Aution Max AX, ARKRAY Inc. Statistical analyses were performed using SPSS software v Urine ph 6.2, USA. Skewed distribution variables were analyzed after logarithmic transformation.

Correlations between urine pH and variables of MetS components were analyzed using the Pearson correlation analysis, and partial correlation analysis was performed to control confounding factors age, gender, eGFR, serum UA, hs-CRP, and smoking and drinking status. In these correlation analyses, the subjects taking antihypertensive, antihyperglycemic, and antidyslipidemic agents were excluded to avoid the effects of drugs on the variables associated with MetS components. Analysis of covariance models were used to examine the relationship between urine pH and the of MetS abnormalities.

The incidence of MetS in all subjects, males, and females were The physical and biochemical characteristics of the study subjects are summarized in Table 1. Subjects with MetS had a ificantly lower urine pH 5. Table 1 Demographic and metabolic characteristics of study participants. However, WC was not a Urine ph 6.2 factor with urine pH.

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Table 2 Correlation coefficients between urine pH and MetS components. Mean urine pH adjusted for confounding factors is shown in Figure 1. Urine pH decreased from 6. The ORs increased with a decrease in urine pH. In this study, there was a ificant inverse relationship between urine pH and MetS and the of abnormal metabolic components.

In addition, urine pH was correlated with variables of MetS components. These did not change even after adjusting for a range of confounding factors such as age, gender, eGFR, hs-CRP, UA, and smoking and drinking status. Our findings are consistent Urine ph 6.2 those of studies [ 2345 ] regarding the relationship between urine pH and metabolic parameters. For example, urine pH has been found to be ificantly lower in patients with type 2 diabetes than in normal volunteers [ 2 ].

Furthermore, participants with MetS had a ificantly lower h urine pH than those without MetS [ 15 ], and low urine pH could be a predictive factor for the development of MetS [ 5 ]. Our and these studies indicate Urine ph 6.2 urine pH correlates with metabolic parameters and that a low urine pH is associated with the incidence of MetS. Although the precise reasons for the relationship between MetS and a lower urine pH remain unclear at this time, a low urine pH could result from increased acid excretion, impaired urinary buffering, or both.

Ammonium is the primary buffer in the urine [ 16 ], and its renal production and excretion are regulated by the ambient acid-base environment.

Insulin is known to influence both of these processes [ 17 ], and mechanisms of acid-base homeostasis may be altered in a state of insulin resistance [ 18 ]. Considering our data along with those from studies [ 2345 ], we hypothesize that acidic urine may be a renal manifestation of insulin resistance resulting from MetS. Although serum UA is not included in the diagnostic criteria for MetS, epidemiological studies have established a close relationship between elevated serum UA levels and the increasing prevalence of MetS [ 91019 ].

Serum UA, a weak acid, may also affect urine pH. Indeed, studies have reported that subjects with higher serum UA levels have lower urine pH [ 5611 ]. In this study, serum UA levels were negatively correlated with urine pH, which is consistent with the of reports. In addition, the relationship between lower urine pH and MetS persisted, even after adjusting for serum UA, suggesting that high serum UA levels alone Urine ph 6.2 for the more acidic urine.

Aging [ 20 ] and renal dysfunction [ 21 ] are also known to be related with a decrease Urine ph 6.2 urine pH. Our are consistent with the following findings: age had an inverse relationship with urine pH whereas eGFR had a positive relationship.

However, the relationship between MetS and its components with urine pH was unchanged even after adjusting for age and eGFR. In Urine ph 6.2 study, fasting single-spot urine samples, and not urine collected over 24 h, were used to determine the urine pH. Although the diurnal variation in urine pH has been confirmed, Capolongo et al. Additionally, the measurement of urine pH using the indicator method is known to be less reliable than using electrodes; however, the indicator method might be more appropriate for routine health check-ups because of its convenience and lower cost.

The strength of the study was its relatively large, well-characterized, community-based population. However, it also has some limitations which include its cross-sectional de which did not permit the determination of causality.

In addition, nutritional records were not available for the patients, and so we could not include dietary patterns in the analyses. Furthermore, the study population consisted of Japanese patients only; consequently, it is uncertain whether these findings could be generalized to other ethnic groups.

In this study, there was a relationship between MetS and low urine pH, in a manner which is independent of serum UA levels. In addition, a progressive decline in urine pH was noted with an increasing of MetS features. Further studies are needed to elucidate the mechanisms responsible for the lower urine pH in individuals with MetS. The authors gratefully acknowledge Nobuo Shimosawa for preparing an electronic database of the participants' clinical records.

We also acknowledge Naoki Nakadaira, a medical technologist in the Iida Municipal Hospital, for the interpretation of the study data. Usage and distribution for commercial purposes requires written permission.

Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is Urine ph 6.2 to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions.

Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor s. The publisher and the editor s disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

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